Category: Construction Methods

How to Properly Install an Asphalt Shingle Roof

This article will give you the basic steps on roofing or re-roofing a house. Unless you have done some roofing before, we strongly suggest that you don’t try this yourself. You might go to all the trouble and then find out you need to start over. For this article we asked Todd of Bel Air Gutter & Siding (https://www.belairgutter.com/) for his tips and to make sure we didn’t steer people wrong. (Despite the name, a large part of their business is roofing in addition to gutters and siding.)

Check the Old Roof First

Why? Because you need to determine if there is one layer of roofing or two. If there is only one layer, you can simply install the new layer on top. If there are two layers already, you will need to remove all the roofing material and start from scratch.

Safety First

Unless you have a rancher that is only one story, there is a safety issue from falling. Even a one story fall can potentially be fatal. Here are some things to do:

  • Make ladders stable with a stabilizer bar or by tying them off
  • Only work on a dry roof, never a wet roof
  • Wear boots with soft soles for good traction
  • Keep everything as clean as possible – roofing debris, tools, dirt
  • Use safety equipment – safety glasses, safety net, safety harness-lanyard system

Roof Physics

Gravity is key. The design of a good roof is based on the fact that water will run downhill. The shingles are overlapped so that water will run down and off the house and not into the house. That is why shingled roofs with very little slope tend to have problems and flat roofs need a different technology. Strong winds can blow water up under the shingles or ice damming can cause water to be blocked and move upwards. Steps to prevent these issues are listed below.

Roof Deck Preparation

When a roofer talks about a deck, he is not talking about a place to sit around, relax and have a beer. The deck is the wood (typically plywood or Oriented Strand Board) that the shingles are attached to. If there are any wet or rotted areas they will need to be replaced. There should also be no gaps. It should be smooth and flat.

Bottoms Up

No, not in terms on drinking. You work from the lowest point on the roof and then move up from there until you reach the peak of the roof. You first need a drip edge to prevent any water from wicking upward. In colder climates, there should be also be an ice and water protector membrane applied to the bottom 2 feet of the roof to prevent problems from ice damming.

Underlayment Layer

This is a layer of either synthetic material or asphalt-saturated felt. It typically comes in rolls 4 feet wide that is laid out horizontally on the roof. Put the first layer down at the bottom of the roof and work upwards, overlapping by 2 inches.

Flashing

Flashing is used in places where leaks usually occur. These are places where a roof butts up against a wall or chimney, or in valleys. Flashing is usually metal and should be put in place before the shingles. Snap a chalk line 6 inches in on the flashing and when you put down the shingles, trim to the chalk line.

Other places where flashing or special rubber barriers are needed are dormers and skylights as well as plumbing stacks and vents.

Finally, the Shingles

As indicated earlier, you start at the bottom and work up, always overlapping. Most of the field of the roof are strips of the same shingles. However, the first layer is specially made to be resistant to the wind. Then use the regular shingles as you move up. The nailing is important. The nail needs to be flush to the shingle and not poking up but at the same time, they shouldn’t be over-nailed and tear the fabric of the shingle.

Ridge Caps and Hips

When you get to the top of the roof you need another specialized shingle. You can’t bend a regular shingle over the top. They make special shingles for the roof top/ridge.

Hopefully this gives you a better idea of what goes into installing a roof.

Commercial Roofing

A roof, as we all know, is the structure that covers and protects a building from the top. It forms an essential part of any building, be it residential, commercial or industrial. The term “Commercial Roofing” covers all aspects of roofing for a commercial building. This ranges from selection of a roofing system to its installation and maintenance.

How is Commercial Roofing different from Residential Roofing?

Despite a few basic similarities, commercial and residential roofing are actually two very different industries owing to the following factors:

  • Commercial and residential roofs are architecturally and design-wise dissimilar. For example, most commercial roofs are flat or near flat while residential roofs generally tend to be sloped.
  • Commercial structures are invariably much larger than residential ones.
  • Due to their larger size and more complex construction requirements, installation of commercial roofs is more expensive and time-consuming vis-à-vis residential roofs.
  • Since the variety of materials and roofing systems available for the commercial sector far exceed the corresponding options for residential roofing.
  • Commercial roofs require more frequent routine maintenance.

Important Considerations for a Commercial Roof

Selecting the most appropriate commercial roof is a significant decision in the overall planning of building construction. Below are some points that must be evaluated to arrive at the right roofing decision:

Weather and Locale: Weather and location specific conditions such as sunlight, wind speeds, rainfall and snowfall must be taken into account during designing of the roof and selecting the roofing material.

Purpose of the Building: The intended commercial use of the building may go a long way in deciding what top qualities to look for in the roofing system e.g. seepage-free material, strong insulation, acoustical strength, aesthetic value, ease of access, etc.

Durability: While factors like weather conditions, proper installation and efficient maintenance play a role in how long a roofing system lasts, the natural age of different roofing materials can vary between 10 and 50 years. Some materials are more maintenance-heavy than others. Consider carefully as to what suits your needs in an optimal way.

Budget: Nobody wants to over-spend but a roofing budget needs to be long-term and practical. Its better to invest more upfront for a durable roof with low ongoing maintenance costs.

Some Popular Commercial Roofing Systems

As mentioned before, there are a large variety of commercial roofing systems available on the market. Here’s a quick look at some of the most popular:

EPDM Roofs: Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer is a lightweight and durable rubber membrane-based roofing solution. Its known to be easy to install and maintain.

TPO Roofs: One of the most in-demand commercial roofing systems, Thermoplastic Polyolefins roofs can withstand extreme temperature fluctuation. It is also amongst the best fire-resistant products available on the market.

BUR: One of the oldest and most preferred systems for flat roofs, Built-Up Roofing uses layers of insulating and strengthening materials topped with gravel or stone. BUR is fire-resistant and generally low maintenance.

Conclusion

Careful and meticulous planning is paramount for successful installation of a commercial roof. Last but not the least, choosing an experienced and reputed roofing company with skilled manpower is also of significant importance.

Roof Repair Tips

If your roof looks like this, you have waited too long to call your roofer. Kidding. This is actually a green roof made with sod. They are good insulators but there isn’t much demand for this yet in the US.

Why Are Roof Repairs Important?

You roof protects your house which is one of the largest investments you will ever make. The longer you wait to repair problems with your roof and gutters, the more expensive the repair is likely to be. Besides helping to insulate the house, the roof and gutter system are key to moving water away from the house. Although other issues can come up related to the roof, water issues are usually at the top of the list.

Rather than just fixing the gutters or some shingles, if you wait too long you will be dealing with rot and mold. And, potentially in the roof and fascia but in rooms below as well. In addition, if it isn’t maintained properly and the water isn’t led away from the house, you can be talking about flooding problems and mold and mildew in your basement.

Where Roof Leaks Usually Occur

If a tree branch has fallen on the house and punched a hole, the source is obvious. However, it usually isn’t that easy. Even if the roof is old, the problem usually isn’t in areas of uninterrupted shingles. Look for leaks at points with flashing such as where the chimney comes through the roof or vent pipes from bathrooms and thing like this.

How to Find Roof Leaks

If you have a water stain in a room, look on the roof from that spot and then look up. Since gravity takes water downhill, the leak can be getting entrance well above where you are seeing the stain. If you can’t find it by looking in the attic then you will have to go onto the roof and look. You probably want a professional to do this unless you have a low roof or are comfortable with that sort of thing.

One way to find a tricky leak is to take a garden hose. Have a helper look inside for when they see water. Start on a low part of the roof and let the water run down in as small an area as possible. Let it run for several minutes before you move it. Move the hose up a bit and let it run for several more minutes. Continue this until your helper sees water. It could take a while but is usually effective.

Shiners

This is the easiest to fix of all and will never generate much water. A shiner is a nail that came through the roof sheath and missed the roof frame. So, it is just sticking out nice and shiny. Water condenses on it and drips down. To solve this problem, just snip it off as close to the roof as possible with cutting pliers.

Plumbing Vent Boots

These are made of different materials. They can be metal, rubber or plastic or a combination. There is usually also a metal piece of flashing designed for vent pipes which goes down first and then the boot on top of that. You might need to replace one or both. The flashing should slip under the uphill shingles and be screwed down on the lower side with a rubber-washered screw. Then put the new boot on.

Walls, Dormers and Caulk

Dormers have side walls and windows. Missing or cracked siding lets water get in there and run down into the roof. Check the siding first. Make sure that you recaulk carefully if there is cracked or old caulk around the windows or anywhere. Replace the caulk to make a firm seal.

We hope you find this useful and prevent any problems from occurring with your roof or gutters.…